Fruits vary widely in their nutritional profiles, though they typically contain important vitamins, minerals, and other compounds, such as antioxidants, that benefit the body.
Some people may worry about eating too much fruit, as fruit is high in natural sugars.
For the average person, eating a lot of fruit may not pose a health risk — as long as it a part of an overall balanced and healthy diet.
However, some people with underlying conditions affecting their digestive health or metabolism may need to be aware of how much fruit they eat. Anyone who is uncertain should talk with a doctor.
Benefits of eating fruit
Fruit is an important part of a healthy diet. Eating fruit provides a number of health benefits to the body.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) notes that fruits are sources of important nutrients and vitamins that some people may struggle to get enough of in their diets, including fiber, potassium, and vitamin C.
Consuming these compounds may help lower the risk of heart disease, stroke, and heart attack.
Regular fruit consumption as part of a healthy diet may also help:
- control blood pressure and cholesterol
- improve gut and digestive health
- protect against certain types of cancer
Fruits are cholesterol-free, naturally low in sodium and fat, and, for the most part, low in calories.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also note that fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, may help a person lose weight or maintain a moderate weight.
Fruit is rich in fiber and water content. This may make it a more filling, less calorie dense option than other foods, such as starchy or fatty foods.
Choosing fruit over other high calorie foods that are less nutrient dense may help someone manage their weight by reducing their overall calorie intake.
Although eating too much of anything may not be good, it is not very likely that a person will eat too much fruit.
In general, fruit is very filling, containing both liquids and dietary fibers.
Eating whole fruit may be self-limiting for many people, as they may simply feel full before eating too much.
The reality of fruit consumption is usually the opposite, meaning that most people do not consume enough of it.
The main concern that some people have about fruit is the amount of sugar it contains.
Fruits are high in naturally occurring sugars, and the body may convert sugars themselves into fats for later use if it does not burn them immediately.
These sugars alone may be an indicator for weight gain and other metabolic issues. This makes some people feel that eating too much sugar could increase fat levels and lead to weight gain.
However, this may not be the case. Research in the journal Nutrients notes that consistent research shows that most fruits actually have an anti-obesity effect.
There may be many reasons for this, including the following:
- Fruit tends to be low in calories per serving.
- Fruit contains vitamins and phytochemicals necessary for ideal health.
- Fruit may feed a healthy gut microbiome.
- Fruit is rich in water and fiber, which may increase feelings of satiety.
Fruit vs. fruit juices
Despite its beneficial fiber and liquid content, fruit is high in simple sugars. In some forms, this may not be ideal. For example, fruit juices remove the fiber and solids of the fruit, leaving behind a sugar-rich beverage.
Fruit juices are also less filling than their whole fruit counterparts. This may allow someone to drink many more servings of juice than they would be able to if they ate the whole fruit, which could greatly increase the levels of sugar they can take in from the fruit.
Some research explains that high levels of sugar-rich forms of fruit, such as fruit juices, are not good for certain age groups, including children.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends 8 ounces (oz) of fruit juice per day for children aged 7 years and above. Fruit juice intake should not exceed 4 oz per day for children aged 1–3 years. Children aged 4–6 years should not consume more than 4–6 oz per day.
Overconsumption of sugar-rich sources such as fruit juices may also promote certain conditions, such as metabolic syndrome.
One 2020 study found that the small intestine helps slow the absorption of fructose, which is the type of sugar in fruit, before it gets to the liver. This helps protect the liver from being overwhelmed by these sugars.
Slow intakes of sugar, such as eating solid foods or eating sugary foods spread out over time, may allow the intestines to effectively control how much sugar gets to the liver.
However, when there is too much sugar for the small intestine to process at once, such as with liquid sources of sugar, the levels in the liver may go up. This makes it harder for the liver to process these sugars.
This extra effort and extra sugar making it to the liver may drive conditions such as metabolic syndrome.
Researchers traditionally believed that fructose was metabolized in the liver first. Its metabolism in the small intestine is a newer discovery.
Although 100% fruit juice can be part of a person’s daily fruit intake, some people may have to be aware of how much they consume.
For people with diabetes
People with diabetes have to watch their intake of foods that will affect their blood sugar levels.
As fruit is high in sugar, some people with diabetes may worry that they will not be able to eat fruit.
However, doctors typically say that people with diabetes should still eat fruit in some form, as it contains healthy minerals, nutrients, and phytochemicals.
Research in the journal Diabetes Care notes that the sugar in whole fruit does not have the same effect as other sugars, such as table sugar, when eaten as part of a balanced diet.
Eating whole fruit instead of other sweeteners may result in better control of blood sugar, and it does not appear to have a negative effect — as long as the person keeps their intake to about 12% of their overall calories.
Risk of diarrhea
Fruit is rich in natural fibers and sugars. Eating too much fiber may give some people diarrhea.
The combination of high liquid, high fiber, and some sugars may have a natural laxative effect, which could lead to diarrhea for some people.
The USDA recommends that adult females eat 1.5 to 2 cups of fruit each day and that adult males eat 2 to 2.5 cups of fruit each day until they are 60 years old, at which point the recommendation becomes 2 cups.
This is a daily recommendation. It is not necessarily the ideal amount for every person. However, consuming at least this amount of fruit may help promote general health and well-being.
A person’s individual needs for fresh fruits and vegetables can vary based on their:
- physical activity
- health conditions
One systematic review found that higher fruit intakes had more protective effects on health. Consuming 7.5 servings of fruits and vegetables each day resulted in a lower total cancer risk.
It also found that eating 10 servings per day, which is double the current recommendation, reduced the risk of all-cause mortality, as well as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and stroke.
As long as a person is eating a balanced diet that is rich in other sources of whole foods, eating whole fruits in almost any amount may be a healthy addition to most diets.
Other factors, including metabolic conditions such as diabetes, may affect this amount.
Some research recommends that people with diabetes should still eat fruit, aiming to include fiber-rich whole fruits over fruit juices and starchy foods. Non-starchy fruit has a low glycemic index.
Additionally, any specific diet plan that a person follows may alter how much fruit they may eat.
Some diets, such as the ketogenic diet, have people drastically reduce their carbohydrate intake. It may be difficult to eat too much fruit while following a low carb diet.
Fruit is an important part of many diets, as it provides necessary nutrients, vitamins, and other healthy compounds, such as antioxidants.
It may be difficult for the average person to eat too much whole fruit.
As long as fruit makes up part of a healthy balanced diet that includes other healthy food choices, eating a large amount of fruit may pose little to no health risks.
Some people with underlying conditions that affect their metabolism or how their body breaks down and uses sugars may need to watch their fruit intake. They should work with a doctor or registered dietitian to find the best options for them in each case.