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Alzheimer Researchers Confident of Producing Effective Treatment

NEW YORK (Reuters) ­ After decades of Alzheimer’s research that led to dead
ends, including 123 drugs that failed, top researchers in the field say they are far
more confident now of producing an effective treatment.

Their optimism has been building ahead of the Alzheimer’s Association
International Conference (AAIC), which starts on Saturday in Washington, DC.
New experimental drugs from Eli Lilly and Co and Biogen have shown promise in
slowing down the progression of the mind­wasting disease, attracting the attention
of investors and patients.

Those drugs are still very early in their development and could still join the scrap
heap. But the field has gained a major understanding of how the brain changes
with Alzheimer’s and better insight on how and when to intervene medically.
“The recurring platitude, which has been going on forever is ‘gee we’re about five
years away from a really effective treatment,’” said Steven Ferris, who directs the
Alzheimer’s clinical trials program at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York.
“It would be premature to say we’ve turned the corner but there’s a lot going on in
the pipeline that is quite promising,” said Ferris, who has been involved in trials for
over 40 years.

The Lilly and Biogen drugs block beta amyloid, a protein which causes toxic brain
plaques considered a hallmark of the progressive brain disease.

Lilly’s solanezumab showed signs of benefiting patients with a mild form of the
disease in 2012. In March, Biogen’s aducanumab became the first experimental
drug to significantly reduce beta amyloid in the brain and slow impairment in
patients with mild disease. Both companies will present new data next week.
“This year is different because multiple mechanisms are being explored and
there’s a tremendous revival of faith in the anti­amyloid approach,” said Dr. Reisa
Sperling, director of the Center for Alzheimer’s Research at Harvard Medical

Sperling’s hope is that several drugs that work differently will prove effective and
can be used together for “a 1­2­3 punch” to Alzheimer’s, as combination
treatments now control cancer and heart disease.

An estimated 5 million people have the disease in the United States. The
Alzheimer’s Association estimates that as many as 28 million Americans will
develop the disease by midcentury and account for 25 percent of U.S. Medicare
spending on the elderly in 2040.


Biogen will present data on a 6 milligram dose of aducanumab on Wednesday,
and researchers hope it will provide the right combination of effectiveness, with
less of a brain­swelling side effect, than observed with other doses. If the 6 mg
dose fails to show a significant improvement over placebo, the result could hurt
Biogen shares.

Researchers say they have improved the selection of patients for Alzheimer’s trials,
making sure they are not suffering from another form of dementia by checking for
beta amyloid, and by testing treatments before the disease becomes too advanced
to have an impact.

Biogen Chief Executive George Scangos said that until recently, over one­third of
patients referred to trials of its drugs didn’t have Alzheimer’s
“We’re at a stage now where we understand the appropriate patient populations,”
Scangos said on a conference call with reporters.

Lilly estimates about 25 percent of patients in its previous Phase III trials were likely
inappropriate candidates. An ongoing Phase III program will use brain imaging
technology to ensure all patients have the amyloid plaque.

On Wednesday, Lilly will present follow­up data from its earlier studies, showing
whether those mildly affected patients who continued to take solanezumab for the
last two years fared better than those who had initially taken a placebo for 18
months but then switched over to the actual drug.

The Alzheimer’s meeting will also highlight an anti­inflammation drug called
azeliragon abandoned years ago by Pfizer Inc when it proved ineffective after 12
months of study.

Pfizer’s tiny partner, privately held TransTech Pharma, continued to follow patients
who had taken the drug and discovered their cognition had improved after 18
months ­ the primary goal of the study. The smaller company, which recently
changed its name to vTv Therapeutics and aims to soon become public, began a
late­stage study of azeliragon in April.

Dr. Ronald Petersen, director of the Mayo Clinic’s Alzheimer’s Disease Research
Center, agrees with Sperling that a multi­prong approach will be required to keep
the disease at bay.  “Another 5 to 8 years down the road, even before symptoms appear, we will be treating with a cocktail of therapies,” he said in an interview.

(Reporting by Bill Berkrot and Ransdell Pierson in New York; Editing by Michele
Gershberg and Andrew Hay)

Reprinted with permission of Reuters. Originally published on July 18, 2015